Pinto Capital Investments

Calculating GSI

Gross Scheduled Income (GSI): What It Is and How It Works

When you’re considering an investment property, one of the key metrics to be aware of is Gross Scheduled Income (GSI), also known as Gross Potential Income, or GPI.

By understanding what GSI is and how it works,  you can more accurately assess the income potential for a multifamily real estate investment by determining the profits a commercial asset can generate with full occupancy.

In this article, we’ll discuss what GSI is and how it works, then dive into the difference between GSI and other common real estate income metrics.

What is Gross Scheduled Income (GSI)?

Gross Scheduled Income (GSI) is the maximum potential revenue that a commercial property can realize if all of its units are rented out. GSI is an important metric for landlords and investors to measure the potential income of a property. It is calculated by taking the total rentable units in a building and multiplying it by the prevailing market rents.

GSI is often compared to Gross Operating Income (GOI), which takes into account any vacancy losses or other expenses associated with running a property. While GSI gives an indication of the maximum potential income from a property, GOI provides more accurate information about its actual earning capacity.

When analyzing a commercial real estate investment, it’s important to understand both GSI and GOI in order to make informed decisions about budget projections and expenses. By comparing these two metrics, you can gain insight into how profitable your investment might be.

Understanding Gross Scheduled Income

GSI is calculated by taking into account the total rentable space, local market rents, and any additional income sources such as parking fees or laundry services.

When calculating GSI, savvy investors also consider factors that can affect the amount of money a property can generate. These include the location of the property, its condition, and any amenities that may be included in the rental agreement. Additionally, vacancy rates and tenant turnover can also impact GSI. If there are more vacancies or tenants leaving frequently, then GSI will decrease accordingly.

It’s also important to note that GSI does not take into account any expenses associated with running a property such as taxes, insurance, utilities and maintenance costs. These must be factored in separately when calculating net operating income (NOI).

Understanding the GSI-to-Debt Service Ratio

Diagram on a screen

Another handy metric used when evaluating multifamily properties is the GSI-to-debt service ratio. This ratio compares the gross scheduled income of a property to its debt service, which includes mortgage payments, taxes, insurance, and other expenses associated with owning the property. The higher this ratio is, the more likely it is that an investor will be able to cover their debt obligations and generate positive cash flow from their investment.

For example, a GSI-to-debt service ratio of 1 indicates that all of the investment’s profits are allocated to repaying the asset’s debt. If the ratio falls below 1, the asset does not produce sufficient profit to cover its debt service. Conversely, if the ratio is greater than 1 this indicates that the investment will likely produce additional income after monthly debt has been repaid. 

How GSI Helps Investors Determine Potential Cash Flow

By understanding how GSI works in real estate investing, investors can better assess potential investments and determine whether or not they are likely to generate positive cash flow. Knowing this information ahead of time can help investors make informed decisions about which properties are worth investing in and which ones should be avoided.

Advantages of Gross Scheduled Income

GSI provides several advantages over other metrics when it comes to valuing a property. Firstly, GSI is more accurate than other metrics because it takes into account all potential rental income from the property, including uncollected rent and vacancy credits. This allows investors to get a more accurate picture of the property’s true value.

Secondly, GSI helps investors better understand current market rents for similar properties in the area. This allows them to adjust their budget accordingly and plan for future investments with greater accuracy. Finally, GSI enables improved financial management by providing investors with a clear understanding of how much money they can expect to receive from renting out their property on a monthly basis.

Overall, Gross Scheduled Income is an invaluable tool for assessing the value of commercial real estate properties and making informed decisions about budgeting and financial management.

Challenges with Gross Scheduled Income

While GSI can be useful in determining potential returns on investment, there are some challenges associated with it. One of these challenges is inaccuracies in rent roll data. Rent roll data includes information such as tenant names, lease terms, and rental amounts. If this data is inaccurate or outdated, it can lead to an inaccurate GSI calculation, potentially misleading financial projections. 

Another challenge with GSI is unforeseen market changes that may affect rental rates or occupancy levels. For example, if there’s a sudden increase in demand for office space in the area, rental rates may go up and occupancy levels may increase, resulting in a higher GSI than expected. On the other hand, if there’s a decrease in demand for office space due to economic conditions or other factors, then rental rates and occupancy levels may decline and result in a lower GSI than expected.

Finally, limited understanding of the metric can also be an issue when calculating GSI. Investors need to understand how to accurately calculate GSI based on current market conditions and rent roll data in order to make informed decisions about their investments.


Investment monitoring

Gross Scheduled Income is a metric many investors keep at hand to evaluate the potential return on investment of multifamily properties. It takes into account all potential rental income from a property and provides investors with a more accurate picture of its true value. Although there are some challenges associated with calculating GSI, such as inaccuracies in rent roll data or unforeseen market changes, understanding how to accurately calculate GSI can help investors make wise choices about their investments. With this knowledge in mind, investors should be well-equipped to assess whether a particular property has the potential to generate positive cash flow over time.


What is the difference between Gross Scheduled Income and Gross Operating Income?

Gross Scheduled Income (GSI) is the total potential income of a property without vacancies, while Gross Operating Income (GOI) is the actual income generated by a property after accounting for vacancy and collection losses. GSI is often used to measure the performance of a property, while GOI is used to measure the actual profitability of a property.

Can GSI be used for other types of properties besides multifamily?

Yes, GSI can be used for other types of properties besides multifamily such as office buildings, retail centers and industrial properties. GSI provides insight into the optimum performance of a property and the expected returns with full occupancy.

What is a good GSI-to-Debt Service Ratio for a multifamily property?

The GSI-to-Debt Service Ratio (DSR) is an important metric that measures how much cash flow a multifamily property generates relative to its debt obligations. Generally speaking, lenders prefer to see a DSR ratio between 1.2 and 1.5, which means that the net operating income should cover at least 120% – 150% of all debt payments associated with the loan.

Anthony Pinto
Anthony Pinto
Anthony Pinto is the founder and CEO of Pinto Capital Investments (PCI), a real estate investment firm focused on acquiring affordable and workforce multifamily properties and apartment buildings through syndications. Since 2019, PCI has gone full cycle on 2 large apartment complexes (+100 units) with an IRR in excess of 85%.